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[Page 9] A PRIMER FOR THOSE WHOSE ELVISH IS HELLVISH AND TO WHOM TENGWAR'S A TONGUE-WAR {Table: A chart divides the page in two. On the left side, under the label "TENGWAR" twenty-six letters of the Tengwar alphabit are paired with their English-equivalent phonemes. The right side of the chart is labled "TEHTAR," and lists vowel markings, genitive casemarkers, articles, and punctuation.} Vowels (tehtar) are placed above the consonant which follows the vowel. If the vowel is at the end of a word or is alone, or when many vowels are used together, tehta is placed over a carrier, / or /, long if vowel is long, short if vowel is short. A single dot · beneath a consonant stands for unstressed e, as at end of a word. Two dots ·· under a consonant means a y follows (used only at end of a word. [The tengwar L with two dots = LY, the P =PY] ETC. ~ below a consonant doubles the consonant. [The tengwar T with this mark = TT] ETC. ~ above a consonant indicates n precedes. [The tengwar T with this mark = NT, the G = NG] ETC. [a hooked symbol] hooked on to a consonant indicates s follows only at end of word). [The tengwar T with this mark = TS, K = KS] ETC.= * s usually turned this way when it has a tehta over it; same with Z. NOTE: There are other signs (see Rotk, App.E). Only those needed for writing English are given.