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[page 32] {Title Art: The following title is writing in as a wave rather than straight left to right.} An English Certar Mode by MARK MANDEL The problem of diverse modes of writing with one set of characters, often discussed with regard to the Tengwar, is no less acute with the Certar. Not only are there numerous Elvish and Dwarvish modes set forth in Appendix E--systems of assign1ng values to the consonalt-signs-- but furthermore, there seem to be almost as many ways of indicating English vowels with the eleven vowel-runes as there are users of the Certar. For this reason I propose a phonetic mode of writing English with Certar, incorporating a vowel-system based on the Simpson or Seidman classification of vowels for the Tengwar, and depending almost entirely on the Angerthas Moria for the consonants. (The Angerthas Moria are less logical than the older Angerthas Daeron; nevertheless, it is the Moria system that is followed in the title-page and tomb inscriptions, and by most Certhists of my acquaintance. The consonant-system of a Certar-mode is almost totally independent of the vowel-system, unlike the Tengwar (of the mode of Beleriand); so it is possible to use the Angerthas Daeron for consonants and this system for vowels in the same mode. {Table: The rune script is compared phonetically with the english equivalents.} 1 I make no distinction between hard and soft "r" in this system, nor do I account for "r-colored" vowels. Those who wish to might use a sign after a vowel to indicate "r-coloring", thus: beer= <script> bear= <script> ; bower= <script>. 2 "H" as in "huge". Of course, these who want may use Cirth not included in this table if they feel inclined to represent non-English sounds, or use other signs for contractions. 3 I have invented four Cirth: a new "y" to free <symbol> for the vowel- system; a new "hy" for similarity to "y" and symmetry with "w"/"wh"; and a "b_i_te" and a "s_ou_nd" because there was none available.